Casuarina (she oak)
Casuarina has beautiful timber with an appearance like oak, useful for cabinet making, turning and furniture. However, it is difficult to season, being prone to warping, cupping and collapse.
Casuarina glauca (swamp she oak)
This tree tolerates strong and salty winds and will survive both damp and dry conditions. Excellent coastal shelter, but this species suckers so should not be planted where it may spread inadvertently. Suckers are not a problem in pasture because they are eaten by stock.
Casuarina cunninghamiana (river she oak)
This tree tolerates strong winds and will survive both damp and dry conditions. Excellent shelter. Does not sucker.
Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne)
A nitrogen-fixing shrub, tree lucerne is adapted to drought-prone sites provided drainage is good. It withstands salt winds but has a limited life of three to five years. As it’s a soil improver, it can be used on a dry site to give early shelter to slower-growing natives. Useful bee food and native pigeons feed on the leaves and flowers.
Coprosma repens (taupata), C. robusta (karamu)
Taupata will withstand extreme coastal winds and dry conditions. It will hedge well and provide a good understorey, to about 1.5 metres. Karamu will not tolerate salt winds well, but makes an attractive understorey tolerating most soil conditions. They have prolific crops of orange berries enjoyed by tui and other birds.
Cordyline australis (cabbage tree/ti kouka)
The cabbage tree has a multi-branched head and perfumed flowers in August. Very hardy, it will grow in both wet and dry conditions. Well suited to riparian planting.
Corynocarpus laevigatus (karaka)
The karaka is a hardy tree surviving salt winds and dry coastal situations. Good for shade and amenity with its orange berries appearing in summer. The berries are poisonous to humans but loved by the native wood pigeon.
Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar)
Grown mainly for shelter, cryptomeria has excellent timber that is naturally durable and used for cladding and weatherboards. Japanese cedar is well suited to forestry plantations in exposed locations. It’s relatively tolerant of salt winds and will grow in dry clays but has no tolerance of poor drainage.
A range of cypress species. Clones grow well in Northland and produce a valuable timber.
Cupressus lusitanica (Mexican cypress), C. macrocarpa (Monterey cypress)
Both have excellent timber used in place of kauri for boat building, weatherboards, structural applications, furniture making and turning.
C. macrocarpa will withstand dry conditions, salt winds and exposed sites. Excellent shelter when tended. C. lusitanica requires more sheltered sites and will not withstand salt winds but is less susceptible to cypress canker and fluting of the stem which both occur in humid conditions.
x Cupressocyparis ovensii (Ovens cypress)
This sterile cross between C. lusitanica and C. nootkatensis (Alaska cypress) is an excellent shelter and timber tree. It’s very hardy and will withstand wind and dry conditions but will not tolerate poor soil drainage. Because all trees are grown from cuttings, they make a very even shelter belt. This clone is a replacement for he Leyland cypress clones which are highly susceptible to canker and should not be grown in Northland.