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English ivy is an evergreen climber that can spread along the ground or climb trees, walls and other structures. Mature plants have woody stems with alternately arranged, shallow lobed leaves up to 3 x 15cm long. It produces numerous tiny yellowish-green flowers from March to May. Berries are deep purple to black, 5-8mm diameter, with 2-3 seeds per fruit.
Preferred habitat includes roadsides, native forest, riparian zones and cliffs. It often escapes from garden groundcover plantings. English ivy is shade, frost and drought tolerant, but prefers damp, fertile soil.
English ivy can invade and dominate woodlands, reducing regeneration of native forests; increasing canopy openness promotes further invasion of ivy climbing up trees with increasing impacts on fitness of existing trees.
English ivy is pollinated by birds and insects and is linked to increased wasp visitation rates. Seeds are predominantly bird dispersed, but the plant is also palatable to deer and goats. Deliberate planting and the dumping of garden waste increases its spread.